- Larvae die in a coiled, twisted, or irregular position in their cells. Cells are usually uncapped.
- Larvae color may change from light cream to grayish brown, darkening as the dead larvae dry up.
- Sour odor may be present.
- Dead larvae are not ropy as in American Foulbrood.
Treat with Tylan or Terramycin. Terramycin is available in Terra-Patties® or TerraPro, treat in spring and fall. For additional information see pages 83, 84.
- Brood pattern is irregular rather than compact.
- Healthy larvae are glistening white color; diseased ones lose this appearance, and turn
from light brown to dark brown and are upright, not twisted in cells.
- Larvae long dead develop the consistency of glue and are difficult for bees to remove.
- Cappings become concave and some will be punctured by bees attempting to remove the dead brood.
- Surface of cappings will be moist or wet rather than dry
- Some dead pupae, shrunken into scales, have their tongues protruding at right angle to their scale or straight up. This may be the only recognizable characteristic.
Treat with Tylan, Tylovet, Lincomix or Terramycin. Terramycin is available in Terra-Patties® or Terra-Pro. Treat in spring and fall. For additional information see pages 83, 84.
Very hard to detect without dissection. If you notice bees disappearing from your hive, you may want your State Inspector to test your bees for this mite.
Is best to treat this one a preventative measure by using Mite-a-Thol®. Alternative treatment is Formic Acid Strips. For additional information see pages 78 & 79.
- Infested capped drone brood.
- Disfigured adult bees, deformed legs or wings.
- Bees discarding larvae and pupae.
- Pale or dark reddish brown spots on other wise white pupae. Visible on the outside of bee.
- Spotty brood pattern.
Treat with Apivar, CheckMite+™, Apistan® strips, Formic Acid Strips or ApiLife VAR or HopGuard. Follow your state's label instructions. For additional information, see pages 76 - 80.
- Bees unable to fly or able to fly only short distances.
- Bees seen trembling and quivering, colony restless.
- Feces on combs, bottom boards, and outside walls of hive.
- Bees seen crawling aimlessly on bottom board, near entrance, or on ground; some dragging along as if their legs are paralyzed.
- Wings positioned at various angles from body – not folded in normal position over abdomen.
- Abdomen distended (swollen).
- When bee is dissected, midgut is swollen, dull, grayish white color and circular constructions of gut are no longer evident; normal gut color is brownish red or yellowish with many circular constructions.
Treat with a mixture of Fumagilin®-B and sugar syrup in the spring and fall. For additional information see page 82.
- Tunnels in combs.
- Silk trails, crisscrossing one another over combs.
- Small dark objects (excrement of wax moth larvae) in the silk trails in a hive.
- Silk cocoons attached to wooden parts.
- Destroyed comb, piles of debris on bottom board.
- A strong hive usually controls moths without assistance. Remove any unnecessary supers or brood boxes so they have less area to defend.
Treat with Para-Moth. Only use in stored supers. For additional information see page 82.
- Mummified bodies of brood can often be seen in cells, on bottom boards, or at the hive entrance.
- Very rare.
There is no registered control agent for use against chalkbrood disease in Canada or the U.S. Although most reports indicate that chalkbrood does not cause serious economic losses, diseased colonies can have reduced populations and reduced honey production. Since adult bees can remove chalkbrood mummies, the disease often disappears as colonies increase in population and/or nectar flow commences.
- White egg masses deposited by the adult female into crevices within the hive.
- Larvae tunnel through the combs, killing brood and ruining newly drawn comb.
- Cream-colored larvae feed on pollen and honey for 10-16 days before exiting the hive to pupate in the soil around the hive.
- Pupae are light tan to blueish tan in color.
- Winged adults emerge from the soil in 2-3 weeks, re-enter the hive to feed and reproduce.
- Life span is up to 6 months.
Treat with one Checkmite+™ strip per hive. Also treat with ground drench GardStar® to kill larvae that enter the soil. For additional information see pages 80, 81.
For additional resources
about honeybee pests
and diseases see our book
selection on pages 142 - 149.