Does reversing hive bodies in the spring prevent swarming?

By Dennis Brown, Lone Star Farms,, Author of “Beekeeping: A Personal Journey” and “Beekeeping: Questions and Answers”

I’m often asked if it does any good to reverse your hive bodies in the spring? That’s a suggested way to prevent swarming.

Most all of the information on that subject would lead you to believe that all you have to do is reverse the hive bodies and that, in itself, will prevent swarming. However, I will present a method that I believe makes more sense. I’ve been using it for years with good results.

First, the method commonly used and has been used for over a hundred years. It is a common practice for the beekeeper, during the first hive inspection of the year, to reverse the top and bottom boxes. The theory is that coming out of winter, the majority of the bees are located in the upper box. Bees tend to migrate to the upper box (for heat) to form their winter cluster.

The queen will begin to lay a few eggs in the middle of the winter months and by the time spring arrives, the hive population has increased such that the upper box is overpopulated. The queen is typically still in the upper box with the brood and most of the adult bees will also be in that upper box taking care of the queen and brood.

Next is the common theory, which goes like this: to alleviate the hive congestion, all the beekeeper has to do is swap the top and bottom boxes. The queen will begin to move up into the now empty top box and half of the adult bees will follow her. That will divide the hive population between the two boxes which will reduce the number of bees in each box. It all sounds reasonable, right?

In my opinion, there is so much good information that it makes the solution “seem” right. In reality, I think that when you just reverse the two boxes, the box with all the congestion is no better off. The congestion has not been improved. The beekeeper is hoping (by just swapping boxes) that the queen will move up into the now less-congested box before the hive begins swarm preparations. This solution is too risky.

My solution.

Remove the top box and set it aside for now. (This is where most of the bees and congestion can be found.) Remove the four middle frames from the bottom box and set them aside. Take the four middle frames from the top box (these frames will contain most of the brood and bees) and place them in the bottom box. Take the remaining frames in the top box with brood (if there is any) and move them together. Keep brood frames together for warmth. Now, take the empty frames from the bottom box and fill in the empty spaces in the top box. Place the top box back on top and put the hive top back on.

Now you have four frames with bees and brood located in the middle of the bottom box and four empty drawn frames available to the queen in the top box. The bees and brood will now be divided between the top and bottom box. The queen will have plenty of room to lay her eggs. (It doesn’t matter if she is in the top or bottom box because she will still have plenty of room for laying.) You will have divided the current hive congestion which should also “minimize” the swarming instinct.

Hive congestion should be dealt with immediately and just by reversing the two brood boxes, that doesn’t help in the short term. The one box is still congested. Don’t wait for the bees to handle congestion. They may decide to handle it by swarming.

Be careful not to perform this management technique too early because the cold temperature could kill some brood if there are not enough bees to cover the brood area during a cold spell.


10 thoughts on “Does reversing hive bodies in the spring prevent swarming?

  1. Eric Grandon

    Exactly. Good job

  2. Robert Young

    I think if you keep the bees plenty of room they will stay in the hive. Last year I had three hives and only one swarmed. Your way sounds good. It gives them a new place to be laying. Keep plenty of room in the supers also. Most of the time if the bees have plenty of room they will stay. I have had a few hives since 1973.

  3. Francine

    When is the best time to do this manipulation? I am in Central Alabama and right now we are averaging temps in late 30’s and low 40’s at night and low to mid 50’s during the day…want to avoid chill brood but don’t want to wait too long either…

    1. Kelley Beekeeping

      Hello Francine, We apologize for the delay. It is recommended to wait until your night time temperatures are consecutively above 40 degrees.

  4. Leigh

    I saw the bees bring pollen. Were on earth did that come from. It’s still in the twenties at night and only randomly warm during the day. I also was pretty sure I saw drones. Isn’t early for the drones to be out and about?

  5. Alice Bryant

    I have a question concerning this topic. Will adding a super give the bees enough room to stop them from swarming?

  6. Dennis Brown

    Hello Alice, Not usually. The best way is to divide the brood up between the top and bottom box as explained. Make sure that both boxes have drawn comb. If you discover queen cells already present, it may be too late and you should acquire a new queen and make a split if you want to salvage your original queen. I hope this helps. Dennis Brown

  7. Matthew Kroger

    Well this theoretically will work but there are more variables you are not accounting for. Like where are the foragers locating the pollen to make bee bread out of? Or where are the honey reserves in location to the moving of frames. Based on my experience its usually best to simply switch the top and bottom boxes. AKA cycling.

  8. becky

    This sounds very logical. I’m going to give it a try!

  9. Patrick

    what do you do when you make your first inspection, and intend to rotate, and BOTH boxes are Stuffed? Thank you..patrick